Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires Scientific Reports

Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires Scientific Reports

The issues raised by commenters to the IRFA are addressed in this document and the final regulatory flexibility analysis (FRFA), which can be found in the public docket for this rulemaking. (3) Be equipped with an effective means to prevent dangerous reverse current flow (e.g., diodes, fuses, etc.) if a battery contains cells or series of cells that are connected in parallel. All tests were video recorded and for the majority of the tests an additional camera was used set at 90 degree angle from the other video camera, allowing simultaneous recording from two sides of the battery fire. Photo of test type A, showing the 5-cell-pack inside a steel-net-box placed on the wire gratings.

  • The burner was active as long as there was a heat contribution from the burning batteries; therefore, the burner was active for different durations of time for different batteries and SOC-levels.
  • This might indicate a higher amount of combustibles, e.g. electrolyte, in these cells compared to the other cells.
  • Because this rule does not have tribal implications and does not impose substantial direct compliance costs, the funding and consultation requirements of Executive Order do not apply.

Except lithium batteries and cells transported by motor vehicle for the purposes of recycling from Class 9 hazmat requirements. All batteries were unused and the calendar life time of the cells before the tests were approximately 6–12 months for type A, F and G and between approximately 2–3 years for type B-E. The pouch cells; type B, C and F was mechanically tied together with steel wires (0.8 mm diameter). The type A hard prismatic cells were tight together in packs of five cells, “5-cell-pack”, using steel straps (1 × 13 mm). The hard prismatic and cylindrical cells were placed in boxes to protect test personnel from potential projectile hazards in case of cell explosions due to excessive pressure. The 5-cell-pack of type A was placed standing up, with the cell safety vents releasing straight upright in direction to the hood and smoke duct, inside a custom-made steel-net-box, see Fig.

Anything over 1 psi would activate the blowout panels, compromising the cargo compartment’s integrity. (2) Each cell and battery must be individually packed in an inner packaging inside the outer packaging and surrounded by non-combustible, non-conductive cushioning material. PHMSA will carefully review any amendments to the international regulation and will consider further rulemaking action based on a robust notice and comment process. As previously stated, we are committed to working with all affected stakeholders to evaluate risks and develop potential solutions, especially non-regulatory solutions. Using water mist resulted in a temporarily increased production rate of HF but the application of water mist had no significant effect on the total amount of released HF. The final rules have been analyzed in accordance with the principles and criteria prescribed in Executive Order (“Federalism”).

Title: Thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries and hazards of abnormal thermal environments.

Based on these comments, we estimate an exception for single-cell lithium batteries would reduce the testing costs imposed on small lithium battery businesses under this rule by an average of $10,321.61 annually over the 5-year analysis time horizon. An exception tied to small production runs would reduce the estimated costs to small businesses by an average of $17,029 annually over the 5-year analysis time horizon. Allowing industry an additional two years to implement the rule would not reduce the nominal costs incurred by industry, but, due to the discounting of the cost stream, would reduce the present value costs to the average small business by an average of $1,576 annually.

They state the hazardous properties of primary lithium batteries do not depend on the mode of transportation or (in transportation by air) on the type of aircraft or transportation service. ALPA contends that the current HMR requirements for the shipment of primary lithium batteries by cargo aircraft are inappropriate for a commodity posing a great enough risk to warrant PHMSA’s taking emergency action to prohibit the batteries aboard passenger aircraft. ALPA recommends the bulk shipment of primary lithium batteries should be governed by regulations consistent with those in place for commodities that pose a similar risk. The final rule continues in force a limited ban on the transportation of certain lithium batteries as cargo aboard passenger aircraft. It tightens other standards for the testing, handling, and packaging of lithium batteries, in each case to reduce the likelihood or consequence of a lithium battery-related fire in transportation. Although we developed these standards in separate rulemaking proceedings, we have combined them for publication in this single final rule in the interests of clarity and consistency and to minimize regulatory burdens.

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By combing these two measurements, the heat release rate (HRR) is calculated using the oxygen consumption method corrected by CO254. Each test day started with a blank test, i.e. using only the propane burner, to measure the HRR of the burner alone and measure blanks for FTIR and gas-washing bottles. In the presented HRR values of the battery tests the burner contribution to the HRR (about 16 kW, with slight daily variations, established by the blank tests) has been subtracted. By integrating the HRR values over the entire test, subtracting the HRR from the burner, the total heat release (THR) from the battery cells could be established.

  • It tightens other standards for the testing, handling, and packaging of lithium batteries, in each case to reduce the likelihood or consequence of a lithium battery-related fire in transportation.
  • The water soluble fluorides were collected in the bottles and the amount of HF was calculated by assuming that all fluoride ions present derives from HF.
  • FEDCO asserts its personnel have seen numerous cases where foreign importers have shipped regulated and hazardous primary lithium batteries by air with inadequate packaging and virtually no insulation that would prevent the batteries from short circuiting.
  • We are committed to addressing those changes in a manner that safeguards our transportation systems and the traveling public, while promoting positive technological advances and minimizing regulatory costs and burdens for consumers and industry, including small businesses.
  • These commenters suggest harmonization would alleviate the confusion caused by the different lithium battery weight limits, exemptions, and testing requirements in the HMR and the international transportation regulations.

Measurement of HRR and corresponding THR was conducted in 38 tests, FTIR in 35 tests and gas-washing bottles were used in 19 tests. Each cell and battery is individually packed in an inner packaging inside an outer packaging and is surrounded by cushioning material that is non-combustible, and non-conductive. The conditions were similar to the Sanyo CR2 and Duracell PL 123A battery tests. The cargo compartment is only constructed to withstand a 1-psi pressure differential in order to rapidly equalize pressure in the event of a depressurization.

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The aggregate lithium content of each battery, when fully charged, is not more than 25 grams. The lithium content of each cell, when fully charged, is not more than 5 grams. (2) At least 6 mm (0.25 inch) on packages having a gross weight of 30 kg (66 pounds) or less, except that smaller font may be used as necessary to fit package dimensions. The aggregate lithium content of the anode of each battery, when fully charged, is not more than 25 grams. The lithium content anode of each cell, when fully charged, is not more than 5 grams.

A. Statutory/Legal Authority for This Rulemaking

7, had a ventilation inlet from an adjacent indoor laboratory hall (which had fresh air inlet from the ventilation system in the building), supplying ambient air with temperature about 20 °C entering beneath the propane burner. We consider the amount of ambient air to be sufficient to provide an oxygen-rich environment and thereby consider the battery fire as well-ventilated. However for some tests, during the rapid and energetic gas outbursts, a full combustion might not have occurred in these short time periods. The HRR curve is used to calculate the total heat release (THR) which corresponds to the energy released from the burning battery. THR is obtained by integrating the measured HRR (with the burner contribution subtracted) over the complete test time.

The water flow was around 190 g water per min and consisted of deionized water. Besides the gas measurements in the SBI apparatus, measurements of gases were also conducted by online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR offers broad and diverse spectra of gases, the focus was however on fluoride gas emissions.

In response to the comments, in this final rule, we are adopting exceptions for small lithium batteries and for small production runs of lithium batteries. The risks that a lithium battery will short-circuit or rupture are a function of design, packaging, and handling. As with many hazardous materials, the risk of a transportation incident involving lithium batteries can be reduced by strengthening packaging and reducing the likelihood and impact of rough handling. The amendments adopted here include tightened testing standards to ensure that batteries that pose the greatest risk in transportation are designed to withstand normal conditions of transportation and packaged to minimize risks of mishandling or damage in transit.

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